Panel 1: Multilingualism, Interculturality and Translation as Activism
Ana Regina Lessa
Department of Spanish, Portuguese, and Latin American Studies of University College Cork
Voices beyond Pedagogy of the Oppressed: reflecting on authorship and translation
The presentation re-traces the reception of Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire, and how the author mediated translational processes. Freire dedicated his life to the development of a theoretical model that generates an educational practice to end illiteracy and to challenge social inequality. Freire’s work draws a spiral around the same theme: education as liberation (Gadotti, 2003). His legacy can be measured by the fact that his work continues to inspire educators around the globe.Freire had to flee Brazil after a conservative dictatorship took power in 1964. In exile, he published Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Despite Portuguese language occupying a peripheric place, emerging international recognition of Freire’s ideas led to translations into many languages almost simultaneously to the first publication of the book. Due to Freire’s international mobility, the text went through various processes of translation including self-translation, indirect and collaborative translation. In many cases, the translators were close collaborators of Freire, in others, social activists disseminated non-authorized editions. By mapping and analysing how the author mediated the reception of Pedagogy of the Oppressed, through interviews and dialogue, other books and autobiographical letters, this presentation seeks to explore authorship and translation and to rethink translation as cultural activism.
Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, University College Cork
A Shipwreck Foretold: The Language of García Márquez in Translation
My project focuses on translations of Gabriel García Márquez’s‘Cronica de una Muerte Anunciada’ and ‘Relato de un Náufrago. These narratives add a new layer to the debate by lacking the exoticism of ‘Cien Años de Soledad.’ I hope to explore the manipulation language undergoes at the hands of translators. My project seeks to answer how the image of Latin America, forged by magic realism, alters the way Garcia Marquez’s language is translated, how the softening or emphasizing of violence is used as a tool to add to the belief that life in Latin America is a world alien to the West, yet connected to the “Global South” and, the ability of the translator to convey imagery and metaphors foreign to his world. Through a House QA analysis, violence, imagery, and identity will be explored to see how language shifts affect their impact. Moreover, by identifying key language elements, the link between magic realism and images of Latin America will be exposed to find how the magic realism backdrop shifts the translation. All of this will come together to map out how translation influences the global reception of García Márquez.
Panel 2: Decolonial Perspectives and Practices
Centre for Mexican Studies, University College Cork
Difficulties with the Decolonial: Reflecting on the space between theory and practice
As a junior scholar of Latin American indigeneities, I suggest that there appears to be a confusing paradox in the way decolonial thought is often articulated as theory. The nature of theory itself, with its fully formed assumptions and widely accepted norms and principles, acts like a preconceived roadmap which, I suggest, presents limitations for the decolonial experience and establishes roadblocks which challenge the scope for imaginative thinking which can emerge from lived experience.
In this narrative-style paper, I will base my discussion of decolonial thought on observations collected during a recent trip to Bolivia. My intention here is not to deny decolonial theory its place in the academy but rather to explore ‘an-other’ pathway(s), as Mignolo (2011) might suggest, in order to come to terms with my difficulties applying this theory against a backdrop of recent experiences in a country which claims to be ‘decolonising’. Since the 2005 election of Evo Morales Ayma, the political arena has become a space of enduring complexity and contrast, as visible separations exist between the politics of discourse and the politics of practice. Confronting the challenges which emerge as a result of this divide, not only requires the application of theory from above, but also of experience from below.
Nadia Albaladejo García
Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, University College Cork
Todos ellos están equivocados: Challenging Borders Between Disciplines: Humour, Science and Anthropology in Remedios Varo’s ‘Homo Rodans’
Art and science are fundamentally similar, as they both ‘seek to discover and communicate novel truths about the world. (Guenther Stent, 2001) Remedios Varo (1903- 1963) arrived in Mexico in 1942 and within a relatively short time, managed to highly position herself within the Mexican art scene, especially after her death. Mostly known through her paintings, Varo also wrote and dedicated time to other crafts, such as designing her own clothes, decorating furniture and collecting pre-Columbian figures. In fact, her creative endeavors extended into the fields of science and anthropology, something which is little known about the artist but which deserves greater attention. This paper offers an analysis of Varo’s only semiscientific manuscript: the ‘Homo Rodans’. This manuscript which is accompanied by a drawing and a sculpture, builds on the idea that, long before the Homo Sapiens was discovered, there is existed the figure of the Homo Rodans, an individual without arms and with a wheel for legs. What is unique and most interesting about it, is the fact that a female artist/writer directly poses a challenge to one of science/anthropology’s greatest discoveries. Drawing on postcolonial theory, I will attempt to explore how humour is used as a device to challenge male-dominated disciplines such as science and anthropology, questioning what is true/real and what is not and ultimately revisiting the position of the female voice within such disciplines.
Caio Cesar Esteves de Souza
University of São Paulo
Brazilian nationalism and the heroes of US Emancipation: the missing sonnet of Alvarenga Peixoto
In 1865, Joaquim Norberto de Sousa Silva, one of the most respected Brazilian intellectuals from the 19th century, decided to exclude an unpublished autograph sonnet from his edition of Alvarenga Peixoto’s complete poetry. The reason for the said exclusion – and possible destruction of that manuscript, since none of the other editors managed to locate it across the centuries – was its view on the so-called heroes of the emancipation of English America (1865, 72-73), considered unworthy of the author and too much offensive. In this presentation, I intend to discuss how that specific case relates to Norberto’s wider view on Brazilian History (developed on many essays and books he published after the said edition) and the role he attributes to the US emancipation on the process of Brazilian independency. My hypothesis is that he is one of the first and most relevant intellectuals in Brazil to raise the US to the role of an epistemological center in American continent – and, as a consequence, to produce Brazil as its periphery. My analysis will dialogue with some post-colonial works from Boaventura de Sousa Santos (2007), Homi Bhabha (1998) and Gayatri Spivak (2008), focusing on their definitions of abyssal thought, colonial discourse and subalternity, respectively.
Panel 3: Interrogating Borders and Identities 1
Cláudia Rio Doce
Professora de Literatura Brasileira e Teoria da Literatura na Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL)
Revista de Antropofagia ou o levante da periferia
A Revista de Antropofagia (1928/1929) pode ser considerada o veículo do mais radical momento do modernismo brasileiro. A publicação institui a figura do antropófago como paradigma da modernidade progressista. Incorporando o movimento de rompimento com o passado de toda vanguarda, a antropofagia coloca em evidência que esse, no caso do Brasil, configura-se como história colonial. Rejeita, portanto, a herança colonialista formadora da sociedade brasileira, declarando-se herdeira, sobretudo, do que era considerado bárbaro nas sociedades indígenas pelo civilizado europeu, confrontando o discurso colonizador. Tomando consciência do papel de espoliado na equação da cultura ocidental, encontra a saída na reivindicação de uma tradição outra, apagada pelo colonizador, tornando as páginas da revista verdadeiros campos de batalha contra os valores vigentes e o senso comum. O antropófago do século XX, portanto, considera-se como parte de um não-vivido latente no vivido, e no que se vive. Filho da errância e do erro, ele denuncia os falsos acertos que nos rodeiam. A proposta de comunicação tem por objetivo fazer uma reflexão acerca dos mecanismos empregados pela Revista de Antropofagia para colocar em prática seus valores.
Donna Maria Alexander
Postdoctoral researcher University College Cork
“Entangling Encounters” Transnational and Intertextual Exchanges in Claudia Rankine’s Citizen: An American Lyric
Jamaican American poet Claudia Rankine’s book-length poem, Citizen: An American Lyric chronicles personal and public examples of racial micro-aggressions to investigate the depth to which racism is ingrained in day-to-day life.
In their introduction to The Racial Imaginary: Writers on Race in the Life of the Mind, Claudia Rankine and Beth Lauffreda define one of the tropes of writing about race as “the anxious, entangling encounters with others.” This paper explores how Rankine develops “entangling encounters” that go beyond interpersonal exchanges and into transnational and intertextual ones.
Alongside the everyday micro-aggressions, Rankine adapts infamous racist instances. For example, she explores the Zinedine Zidane incident at the 2006 World Cup Final during which the French footballer was sent off for head-butting Italy’s Marco Materazzi in response to racial slurs. It receives a frame-by-frame replay and deconstruction in a section of Citizen called “October 10, 2006 / World Cup” and in an accompanying short film called “Situation 1.”
I argue that Rankine engages with a series of transnational, intertextual, and crosspoetic interlocutors, and as such Citizen defies concrete definition as a poem. Its poetic and dialogic borders are porous, leaking out and soaking in transnational and intertextual exchanges that reflect Rankine’s challenge to US-centric dominant narratives about racism.
M.Phil from Trinity College Dublin and private tutor
‘A cada alma dolorida le gusta cantar sus penas’: myth, memory and the afterlives of the Gaucho
This paper will draw upon both Hispanophone and Lusophone contexts in order to examine the archetype of the Gaucho: the mixed-race descendants of settlers and indigenous peoples who inhabited the plains of 19th century South America as itinerant horsemen. The pre-eminent literary vision of the archetype, José Hernández’s epic poem El gaucho Martín Fierro, endowed the figure with a kind of nativised anachronism, depicting as it did an epoch that was already coming to an end by the time of its publication in 1872. Each subsequent literary treatment of the Gaucho can thus be read as the nostalgic restoration of a figure swept aside by Europeanizing forces, an excavation of a relinquished vision of the Americas. Taking up Northrup Frye’s description of the Romantic hero as an archetype by whom societies impoverish themselves by rejecting, I will look at how the dual forces of the natural environment and the displacement of the Gaucho by urban elites combined to engender the figure with an afterlife of romanticised defiance. The study will set out to traverse cultural and linguistic thresholds, drawing upon themes of identity, linguistics, race, memory and poetics in order to examine the mythologization of the Gaucho in a Pan-American context.
Panel 4: Interrogating Borders and Identities 2
PhD Candidate on MEITS (Multilingualism: Empowering Individuals, Transforming Societies) project at the University of Cambridge.
Llengües abolides? Multilingualism as a feminist issue in the narrative works of Maria-Mercè Marçal and Julia Fiedorczuk
In the present paper I will explore the relationship of multilingualism and diverse feminist discourses in the narrative of Julia Fiedorczuk and Maria-Mercè Marçal.
Fiedorczuk’s characters are often travelling – we meet them on planes, islands, on a raft among the great flood after the melting of icicles. Those places of uprootedness serve as bridges which connect readers to the nomadic women-protagonists. Fragments in Greek, English, Yiddish, Hebrew, Esperanto, or Sanskrit are present within the predominantly Polish texts. In her critical work Fiedorczuk relates multilingualism to ecofeminism and the linguistic “queering of nature”, which “contests the notion of identity and founds an ethics upon difference”. Marçal, on the other hand, links the estrangement of ‘foreigners’ to non-normative gender and sexual identities. Her novel La Passió segons Renée Vivien constitutes a fictional biography of Pauline Mary Tarn, the English-born poet who wrote in French under the nom de plume of Renée Vivien. The book offers an account in Catalan – rich in multilingual intertexts such as Sappho, the Bible or the French Symbolists – of Vivien´s literary and romantic relationship with Natalie Barney. Both Marçal´s and Fiedorczuk´s works may thus be regarded as “translation zones” in which transLations and transNations coexist and correlate.
MA by Research student in the Department of Modern Languages at the University of Birmingham
A fluid analysis of Josep Pla’s fluid landscapes
Domestic travel within the Iberian Peninsula has come to accentuate the linguistic and cultural boundaries between the perceived centre and peripheries. Therefore, Iberian travel writing reflects the plurality of its spatial reality. Considering the travel narratives of Josep Pla, this paper will investigate how representations of nature define cultural and linguistic spaces within the Iberian Peninsula. Analysis will focus on the portrayal of water in Pla’s work. Bearing in mind theories developed by the likes of Enric Bou in his book Invention of Space: City, Travel and Literature (2012), the constant movement of water will be interpreted as a symbol of renovation and as a statement against fixation. Thus, Pla’s opulent depictions of water in the Iberian peripheries can be seen to be laden with connotations of freedom, modernity and happiness. On the contrary, the discernible omission of references to water and likening of the Iberian centre to a barren wasteland, can be understood as a critique of its oppressive, centrifugal tendencies. Therefore, links may be conceived between the physical and cultural affluence of various Iberian spaces, further entrenching some transnational conflicts, whilst simultaneously establishing other transnational collaborations.
PhD Candidate Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Solemos concebir la frontera como espacio limitador, un espacio que marca la similitud contra la diferencia. Un concepto que el hombre desarrolla desde su ámbito más íntimo, el cuerpo como frontera, hasta el más amplio, el ser humano como ciudadano del mundo. Este concepto es transferible al resto de elementos: fronteras aduaneras, repartición de territorios, de mares,… quizá con el objetivo de dominar y diferenciar. A lo largo de la historia, la cronología está llena de intercambios y segregaciones, todo para poder crear espacios diferentes, para que las personas puedan expresarse con una lengua, unas costumbres, unas vestimentas con las que identificarse y crear una identidad. Los hechos nos dejan ver continuamente que nada es estable y permanente; todo cambio por pequeño que sea, repercute en un entorno. Las fronteras no son definitivas ni permanentes.
El estudio se enmarca en la Ribagorza, un territorio situado en el noreste de España, entre Cataluña y Aragón. El concepto de frontera en época moderna y una visión de la evolución fronteriza son algunas de las cuestiones del estudio, contextualizadas en un punto de vista histórico y político; perspectivas francesas, catalanas e hispánicas; y los cruces en la construcción de identidades.